What Is To Be Done: The Enlightened Thinkers and an Islamic Renaissance, is a collection of lectures Dr. Shari'ati delivered in the 1970s, dealing with the definition of an intellectual, his role in the society and hisresponsibility, play the role of social prophets. The volume contains three lectures, one of which has been divided into two parts, together they constitute Shari'ati's response to what he perceives as the crisis facing the Islamic world. According to him, Muslims today are in need of an "Islamic renaissance" brought about by the enlightened Muslim thinkers. The lecture "Where Shall We Begin" deals with the characteristics of such thinkers. "What Is to Be Done" has two distinct parts, one theoretical and the other practical. The remaining lecture of the collection. "Surah al-Rum" (The Romans: A Message to Enlightened Thinkers,) gives a case of study of the power of Islam and the way in which it was able to overcome the superpowers of the day, the Sassanid and the byzantine empires.
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